Ethical dilemmas in media 2018On 27.10.2020 by Gogis
The burgeoning problems with the media have been documented in great detail by researchers, academicians and journalists themselves:. There is tendency for the press to play up and dwell on stories that are sensational - murders, car crashes, kidnappings, sex scandals and the like.Media Law vs. Media Ethics
A poll by the Columbia Journalism Review and the nonprofit research firm Public Agenda of senior journalists nationwide found:. While the media is busy covering sensationalist stories, issues that affect our lives and the whole world receive little attention.
Meanwhile, getting environmental stories into print, or on the air, has never been more difficult. According to the World Health Organization about 28, people who die every day around the world could be saved easily with basic care.
In all, last year 8. When Americans are asked what percentage of the GDP for international aid would be reasonable, the answers range from 1 percent to 5 percent. Similarly, when asked what percentage of the federal budget should go to foreign aid, Americans on average said 14 percent, and that in fact, they thought 20 percent was currently being allocated.
The actual amount of our budget allocated is 1 percent. Yet the press rarely reports on any of the above — that we give so little, that we are avoiding what we agreed to, that Americans think giving at a higher level would be reasonable, that we think we are giving far more than we are, and that a huge number of deaths every day eight times the number that died in the attacksare a direct result of not receiving basic care.
When the press does report on foreign aid, the media often perpetuates the myth that we give substantially and in proportion to our means. A seven-month series of polls by the Center for Policy Attitudes and Center for International and Security Studies at the University of Maryland found that Americans receiving their news from nonprofit organizations were far more likely to have accurate perceptions related to American foreign policy than those receiving their information from for-profit entities.
The study also found the variations could not be explained as a result of differences in the demographic characteristics of each audience, because the variations were also found when comparing the demographic subgroups of each audience. For example, in three areas of information related to Iraq whether weapons of mass destruction had been found, if clear evidence had been found linking Iraq and al-Qaeda and if worldwide public opinion supported the war in Iraqonly 23 percent of those who received their information from PBS and NPR had an inaccurate perception, while 55 percent of those who received their information from CNN or NBC had an inaccurate perception, 61 percent for ABC, 71 percent for CBS and 80 percent for Fox.
Similarly, on the specific question of whether the majority of the people in the world favored the U. When the percentages of people misperceiving in each area were averaged, it was found that those receiving information from for-profit broadcast media outlets were nearly three times as likely to misperceive as those receiving from the nonprofit media organizations. Those receiving their information from Fox News showed the highest average rate of misperceptions -- 45 percent -- while those receiving their information from PBS and NPR showed the lowest - 11 percent.
The study found similar patterns also existed within demographic groups, and that differences in demographics could not explain the variations in levels of misperception. For example, the average rate for all Republicans for the three key misperceptions was 43 percent. This same pattern occurred in polled Democrats and Independents. This pattern was observed at other educational levels as well.
She found that from toThe Ann Arbor News published 11 articles on the achievement gap in local schools; then suddenly, in92 achievement-gap articles appeared; then, gap coverage virtually disappeared again, plummeting to two articles in What amazed her was that during that entire period the achievement gap remained substantial and virtually unchanged.Tags: Media's FutureU.
An all-too-common error iMediaEthics has come across this year is news outlets mixing up and identifying the wrong person or using a photograph of the wrong person in news reports. This is becoming a major media mistake, as it concerns issues of fact checking, verification, photojournalism ethics, and sometimes diversity when the mistake involves race or gender.
Incountless corrections, apologies and retractions were made because of this type of media misstep, and public editors have identified it as one of the most common mistake needing correction. It may not be sexy, but it is an important area needing to be addressed. As iMediaEthics wrote at the time:. The story is complicated and certainly unique. In a significant ruling this summer, an Australian court found that a news outlet is responsible if someone posts a defamatory comment on its Facebook page.
Earlier this year, an Australian court issued a ruling that deserves keeping an eye on. Journalists fell into trouble again with historical — or old — tweets resurfacing. In one case, a USA Today editor admitted that back in college, she published a photo of people in blackface.
A CNN editor resigned over his anti-Semitic tweets. Verification was still a problem in In November, the New York Times admitted documents that it reported on may not be authentic.
A few weeks later, the Times admitted its article on one of R. ABC News aired a video purporting to be from an attack in Syria, but really was from a Kentucky gun show. Since then, news coverage of the incident has prompted numerous stories including various lawsuits against news outlets for their coverage, deleted storiesdefenses of news coverage, and at least one fired staff member over tweets. This year, the royals fought back, with Prince Harry suing over alleged hackingMeghan Markle suing over the publication of an excerpt from a letter she sent her fathe r, and the couple using the UK press regulator the Independent Press Standards Organisation to handle a complaint.
As with most years lately, the election and Pres. Donald Trump prompted numerous ethical debates and concerns. New York Times editorial page editor James Bennet recused himself from election coverage after his brother entered the race, the New York Post unpublished a story about E. Fox News wrongly said Sen. More than a dozen times this year, there were controversies over race.
This year, numerous news outlets exhibited bad taste and needed to give at least a second review by editors before publication. The Winnipeg Sun upset readers with an insensitive headline about Jeopardy! Your email address will not be published. Submit a tip. Credit: Pixabay.In the competitive and rapidly changing world of mass-media communications, media professionals—overcome by deadlines, bottom-line imperatives, and corporate interests—can easily lose sight of the ethical implications of their work.
Cambridge Analytica Scandal Raises New Ethical Questions About Microtargeting
The U. According to U. Census statistics from Census Bureau, Yet in network television broadcasts, major publications, and other forms of mass media and entertainment, minorities are often either absent or presented as heavily stereotyped, two-dimensional characters.
Rarely are minorities depicted as complex characters with the full range of human emotions, motivations, and behaviors. Meanwhile, the stereotyping of women, gays and lesbians, and individuals with disabilities in mass media has also been a source of concern. In American mass media, the White man is still shown as the standard: the central figure of TV narratives and the dominant perspective on everything from trends, to current events, to politics.
White maleness becomes an invisible category because it gives the impression of being the norm Hearne. In the fall ofwhen the major television networks released their schedules for the upcoming programming season, a startling trend became clear.
Of the 26 newly released TV programs, none depicted an African American in a leading role, and even the secondary roles on these shows included almost no racial minorities. Pressured—and embarrassed—into action, the executives from the major networks made a fast dash to add racial minorities to their prime-time shows, not only among actors, but also among producers, writers, and directors.
Despite these changes and greater public attention regarding diversity issues, minority underrepresentation is still an issue in all areas of mass media. In fact, the trend in recent years has been regressive. In a recent study, the NAACP reported that the number of minority actors on network television has actually decreased, from during the — season to four years later WWAY, Racial minorities are often absent, peripheral, or take on stereotyped roles in film, television, print media, advertising, and even in video games.
Additionally, according to a study by the University of California, Los Angeles, the problem is not only a visible one, but also one that extends behind the scenes.
The study found that minorities are even more underrepresented in creative and decision-making positions than they are on screen Media Awareness Network, This lack of representation among producers, writers, and directors often directly affects the way minorities are portrayed in film and television, leading to racial stereotypes.Reporters, producers, editors and news directors time and again faced difficult decisions about what to show, when to show it and how to label it.
But one video in particular stood out to me. I was struck by the vividness of the story, the depth of the reporting and the intensity of the fire. But I was even more struck by how carefully the station and its staff explained their decisions to show parts of the video and withhold others. Wolves at the gate pic. News organizations have a clear choice to make on ethics as we head into a new year. For too long, we have treated our decision-making as something that is rightly left only to us.
Too often, we put up walls between ourselves and our communities, preferring the protection of professionalism to the discomfort of having our decisions challenged. I would argue the time has long since come to change that orientation.
We need to move away from our closed systems and find new ways to collaborate with our communities. We need an engaged ethics in journalism. Claims of newsworthiness — the defense inside journalism circles — are viewed more skeptically by many citizens.
The crews were there legally, as the landlord willing gave them access to his property, but the frenzy drew quick and withering critique. I've blurred the important bits. Journalism faces a key moment. In addition to cases like these, where behavior in breaking situations is called into question, overall trust in news media is at a historic low. So the question becomes how can we continue to report bravely on often-difficult issues of public concern without falling victim to the failings of pack journalism, privacy invasions and needless harms.
What would an engaged ethics look like? News workers consider the impact and potential for harm posed by their stories all the time. Why not cover those concerns in our stories? When we illuminate the difficult decisions behind reporting, the audience is better able to understand the processes and ethics of journalism.
We have to aim additionally for meaningful ways to involve the public.Tim Mak. Revelations about how Cambridge Analytica accessed voter data have brought new scrutiny to how campaigns target individuals. Campaign professionals defend the practices that revolutionized how elections are fought and won in the past decade. Cambridge Analytica's use of Facebook data to try to help Donald Trump win the presidency is also raising concerns about how political campaigns work in the digital age.
NPR's Tim Mak has this look at how campaigns get personal information so they can target voters. So microtargeting is something that's been with us for some time now. It's an old practice actually. And you want to find Democrats who might be disaffected with Hillary Clinton on an issue like abortion. You're going to use data that you have to try to figure out who those people are. MAK: Campaigns will typically buy voter information from specialized political data firms - with information such as voter registration, where they live, their religion, their partisan affiliation, what they buy, what TV shows they watch and so on.
This practice of microtargeting is part of the larger Cambridge Analytica scandal. But it's not microtargeting that's the primary scandal. MAK: But because Cambridge Analytica was using misappropriated data for microtargeting purposes, questions about ethics and privacy are being raised about the underlying practice, says Kreiss. KREISS: The thing about this scandal is that it has brought into public view a lot of things that people just had no idea was just the standard way of operating and doing things.
And people get a little bit, you know, creeped out by that. MAK: Dave Carney, a Republican operative who worked on data strategy for Texas Governor Greg Abbott, is crying foul that the general practice of targeting voters through the use of Facebook data, which was seen as innocuous when used by the Obama campaign, now raises such alarm when associated with the Trump campaign.
MAK: But Roeder says that unlike Cambridge Analytica, they followed the rules when they obtained data from microtargeting. They went directly to supporters of the campaign. They asked them explicitly to grant them permission to this information. MAK: And there's good reason for the interest in such specific information about private individuals. The habits of Americans are getting increasingly fragmented. And it's harder for campaigns to find one place and one message that reaches a broad swath of receptive voters.
Top Media Ethics Issues from 2019
People increasingly do things like time shift their shows or watch new platforms like Netflix, etc. In that broad context, data becomes a lot more important because you have to just try to figure out how do you get people's attention.
In fulfilling these duties, public officials will encounter predictable ethical dilemmas which arise out of their role as public servants. These include:. What matters potentially influence your ability to work in the public interest and represent all constituents equally and fairly? Are you favoring family, friends, or neighbors over another petitioner?
Are you favoring a campaign contributor over another constituent? Can you hire friends or family? Can you give unpaid internships to friends or family?
Can you appoint friends or family to commissions?
Are you disfavoring a constituent who supported an opponent? Is your vote biased against a proposal of a colleague who worked against your election?
Is your vote biased in favor of a proposal of a colleague who has promised to vote your way on another matter? Are you favoring the agenda of your party over a policy you believe to be good for the community? Are you giving all of your constituents equal access? Are you allowing all parties the right to be heard at public meetings? What is a fair process for bidders on city contracts?
What process is fair in labor negotiations with public employees? Do you have personal interests that conflict with your duty of loyalty to the public you have been elected to serve?
Are there outside or future employment considerations that conflict with your public duty? Are there conflicts between your duty to your family that may affect your decision making?
Is the pursuit of personal financial gains taking precedent over good governance?
Journalism and Media Ethics Cases
Is the interest in furthering personal, community, or political relationships conflicting with your public duties? Do you use the indicia of your office for personal gain? Do you use public resources for personal or political purposes?Social media, web and mobile technologies are increasingly used in healthcare and directly support patient-centered care. Patients benefit from disease self-management tools, contact to others, and closer monitoring.
Researchers study drug efficiency, or recruit patients for clinical studies via these technologies. However, low communication barriers in social-media, limited privacy and security issues lead to problems from an ethical perspective. This paper summarizes the ethical issues to be considered when social media is exploited in healthcare contexts. Starting from our experiences in social-media research, we collected ethical issues for selected social-media use cases in the context of patient-centered care.
Results were enriched by collecting and analyzing relevant literature and were discussed and interpreted by members of the IMIA Social Media Working Group. Most relevant issues in social-media applications are confidence and privacy that need to be carefully preserved.
The patient-physician relationship can suffer from the new information gain on both sides since private information of both healthcare provider and consumer may be accessible through the Internet.
Physicians need to ensure they keep the borders between private and professional intact. Beyond, preserving patient anonymity when citing Internet content is crucial for research studies. Exploiting medical social-media in healthcare applications requires a careful reflection of roles and responsibilities. Availability of data and information can be useful in many settings, but the abuse of data needs to be prevented.
Preserving privacy and confidentiality of online users is a main issue, as well as providing means for patients or Internet users to express concerns on data usage. Due to improved possibilities and means to obtain information about diseases and treatments that go hand-in-hand with the development of social media and Internet technologies, patients are becoming more informed [ 1 ], and they increasingly want to be engaged in their care [ 2 ].
Social media are digital media and technologies that enable users to exchange information and to create media content individually or in community with others.
This media is increasingly becoming a tool supporting healthcare processes, gathering and sharing information, bringing people together, and encouraging social networking and communication regarding health topics [ 3 ], and it supports in this way patient empowerment, i. The phenomenon of social media and its increased importance in the private as well as in the public sector show there are many potentials even in healthcare settings enabling patient-centered care.
In particular, individuals suffering from chronic diseases are using social media more and more to communicate with others, exchange information, and human experiences.
Top Media Ethics Issues from 2019
Peer-to Peer healthcare is emerging as a source for patient information and support [ 5 ]. Patients, family members, and friends share personal medical information, receive emotional support, or request guidance and advice from healthcare professionals via social-media sites.
For researchers, such data provide new opportunities to analyze observational data to confirm results from randomized trials [ 6 ]. Increasingly, social networks are being used to investigate adolescent and young adult behaviors and personality traits [ 7 ], as well as for data collection and education purposes. One application area in this context is the recruitment of patients for clinical trials based on social-media profiles or the exploitation of social-media data for epidemiological studies [ 8 ].
Beyond, physicians may use social networking to crowdsource answers to individual clinical questions. Researchers have found, based on the data posted on Twitter, they can detect and monitor disease activitymost notably disease outbreaks such as cholera and influenza [ 910 ], but more recently, data about issues like headache appearance was collected from tweets [ 11 ]. These examples show patient-centered healthcare, social media, and the Internet are beginning to come together.
Patient behavior has notably changed already and will increasingly influence healthcare delivery and research. A couple of ethical questions arise when it comes to the use of social media in healthcare settings. What do researchers need to consider when developing monitoring applications for healthcare using social media? What do health providers have to consider with respect to ethical questions of social-media usage?
Ethics is defined as the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation [ 12 ]. Public health ethics deal with the specific moral questions regarding public actions for disease prevention, life elongation, or psychological and physical well-being. This is in contrast to medical ethics which concentrates on the relationship between patients and doctors.
The issue of how ethical principles may be applied to online health research is a current challenge for researchers, but also for health professionals and patients alike. In this paper, we start to explore these questions and topics. The objective of this work is to examine the ethical implications of the aforementioned trends in the state of the art and to provide topics to be further addressed in the future.
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